CHALLENGE OF PROSELYTISM AND THE CALLING TO COMMON WITNESS
DOCUMENT OF THE JOINT WORKING GROUP
BETWEEN THE WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES AND THE ROMAN CATHOLIC
We would like to present the document The Challenge
of Proselytism and the Calling to Common Witness, which has
been prepared by the Joint Working Group between the World Council
of Churches and the Roman Catholic Church, in response to concerns
expressed by some of our churches in regard to the missionary
outreach of other churches that would seem to bear some of the
characteristics of proselytism.
It is within the concern for full Christian unity and common
Christian witness that the question of proselytism is looked
at in this document. There is the common conviction that central
to the work of Christian unity is an urgent need for all Christians
to be able to give a truly common witness to the whole Christian
In this spirit, the document may help Christian communities
to reflect on their own motivation for mission and also on their
methods of evangelizing. Dialogue in a truly ecumenical spirit
with those considered to be proselytizing is highlighted.
It is our hope, therefore, that this document will be shared
at different levels of church life and reflected on by churches,
so that it can contribute towards breaking down mistrust, suspicion,
misunderstanding or ignorance of the other, where any of these
may exist, as well as encourage persevering effort to seek new
ways and means of closer collaboration in evangelization, according
to the different circumstances of time, place and culture.
All such efforts will mean a deeper commitment to the goal of
full communion among Christ's disciples, in the certitude that
our fellowship is with the Father, through the Son, in the Holy
Spirit. This document is meant as a contribution to that goal.
Eminence Metropolitan Elias of Beirut
Most Rev. Alan C. Clark
Co-moderators of the Joint Working Group
25 September 1995
document is the result of discussions in the Joint Working
Group (JWG) and is presented with the conviction that it is
timely, and with the hope that it may serve as an impulse
for further reflection and action in the churches. The conversations
in the JWG were marked both by the grateful recognition of
the increase of common witness of Christians from different
traditions, and serious concerns about tensions and conflicts
created by proselytism in nearly all parts of the world. It
is the new reality of common witness and a growth in koinonia
which forms the backdrop for a critical consideration of proselytism
which has been described as conscious efforts with the intention
to win members of another church.1
Even though the JWG has addressed the questions of common
witness and proselytism on two previous occasions, recent
dramatic events have led it to study these issues once again.
Over the past few years we have become more aware of the
concern being expressed in new situations and contexts in
which people tend to be vulnerable in one way or another,
and where proselytizing activity is alleged to be taking
place. Some situations invite urgent ecumenical attention,
within the climate of newly found religious freedom,
e.g. in Central and Eastern Europe where there is a threat
felt by some churches that their members are under pressure
from other churches to change their allegiance;
instances in the "developing world", (often
easily identified with nations in the southern hemisphere,
though also found elsewhere), in which proselytizing efforts
take advantage of people's misfortunes e.g. in situations
of poverty in villages, or in the mass migration to the
cities where new arrivals have a sense of being lost in
anonymity, or marginalized, and are frequently outside the
pastoral structure of their own church to induce them
to change their church affiliation;
where people of a particular ethnic group, traditionally
members of one church, are said to be encouraged by unfair
means to become members of other churches;
the activity of some new missionary movements, groups
or individuals, both within our churches and outside them,
especially those originating in the newly industrialized
nations which enter countries often uninvited by any church
and begin missionary activity among the local people in
competition with the local churches;
in various places the arrival of evangelizing groups
making extensive use of the mass media and causing confusion
and division among local churches;
in many parts of the world, the churches are experiencing
proselytizing activities of sects and new religious movements.
The purpose of this document is to encourage all Christians
to pursue their calling to render a common witness to God's
saving and reconciling purpose in today's world and to help
them to avoid all competition in mission that contradicts
their common calling. With this aim the document seeks to
facilitate a pastoral response to the continuing challenge
of proselytism which not only endangers existing ecumenical
relations but is also an additional barrier to our growing
together in reciprocal love and trust as brothers and sisters
Today, we thank God for the achievements of ecumenical theological
dialogues during recent decades and for a new climate of
understanding and friendship in which ecumenical relations
are being developed. We are also grateful for all the recent
encouraging signs of better mutual understanding and joint
perspectives in the area of common witness and proselytism.2
These are recorded in bi-lateral and multi-lateral dialogues
among churches and can be seen in significant initiatives
of common witness at different levels of church life. These
agreements and joint actions provide a basis and encouragement
to intensify our efforts to bear together a credible witness
to the gospel in the contemporary world.
In this study process we wish to affirm what continues to
be valid in the two previous WCC/RCC Joint Working Group
documents: Common Witness and Proselytism3
and Common Witness.4
We also want to take into account relevant material on evangelism
and proselytism from some of the aforementioned dialogues.
In addition, this study process will be linked with another
possible study on proselytism in the World Council of Churches
by Unit II.5
We acknowledge with appreciation similar studies being undertaken
by ecumenical bodies like e.g. the Conference of European
and the Middle East Council of Churches.7
Our desire is to invite reflection and action on the part
of churches of different traditions in a task to which all
are called on our pilgrimage to a fuller expression and
experience of visible Christian unity
II. Mission and Unity: the Context of Common Witness
An essential element of the Church is to participate in
the mission of God in Jesus Christ to the world by proclaiming
through word and action God's revelation and salvation to
all people (1 Jn 1:1-5). Indeed, God's mission towards a
"reconciled humanity and a renewed creation" (cf.
Eph 1:9-10) is the essential content and impulse for the
missionary witness of the Church.
Mission in this sense of being sent with a message that
is addressed to the spiritual and also material needs of
people is thus an inescapable mandate for the Church. This
imperative is affirmed today by many churches and is expressed
through their regular activities as well as special efforts
(New Evangelization, Decades of Evangelism, Mission 2000).
Sent to a world in need of unity and greater interdependence
amidst the competition and fragmentation of the human community,
the Church is called to be sign and instrument of God's
Ecumenical relationships, however, have from the beginning
of the modern ecumenical movement been shaped by the insight
that the search for the visible unity of Christ's Church
must include the commitment to and the practice of a common
missionary witness. In the prayer of Jesus "that they
all may be one so that the world may believe" (Jn 17:21),
we are reminded that the unity of Christians and the mission
of the Church are intrinsically related. Divisions among
Christians are a counter-witness to Christ and contradict
their witness to reconciliation in Christ.
In responding to the appeal for the unity of Christians
in effective missionary witness, we need to be aware of
the reality of diversity rooted in theological traditions
and in various geographical, historical and cultural contexts.
We recognize, therefore, that the unity we seek is a unity
that embraces a legitimate diversity of spiritual, disciplinary,
liturgical and theological expressions that enrich common
witness. It will include the discovery and appreciation
of the many diverse gifts of Christ which we share already
now as Christians in "real but imperfect communion",
gifts given for the upbuilding of the church (cf. Rm 12:4-8).
Even when churches are not in full communion with each other
they are called to be truthful to each other and show respect
for each other. Such an attitude does not subvert their
self-understanding and their conviction to have received
the truth but rather facilitates the common search for unity
and common witness to God's love for the world.
In the growing ecumenical koinonia there must also be a
way of witnessing to the gospel to each other in faithfulness
to one's own tradition and convictions. Such mutual witness
could enrich and challenge us to renew our thinking and
life, and could do so without being polemical towards those
who do not share the same tradition. "To speak the
truth in love" (Eph 4:15) is a challenge and an experience
long accepted within the ecumenical movement.
The recognition of an already existing, though imperfect,
communion among churches is a significant result of ecumenical
efforts and a new element in twentieth century church history.
This existing communion should be an encouragement for further
efforts to overcome the barriers that still prevent churches
from reaching full communion. It should provide a basis
for the renewal, common witness and service of the churches
for the sake of God's saving and reconciling activity for
all humanity and all creation. It should also provide a
basis for avoiding all rivalry and anatagonistic competition
in mission because "the use of coercive or manipulative
methods in evangelism distort koinonia".9
When Christians by means of efforts towards common witness
struggle to overcome such lack of reciprocal love, of mutual
understanding and of trust they will be open to the call
for repentance and for the renewal of their efforts. This
is the way "to come to the unity of the faith and of
the knowledge of the Son of God, to maturity, to the measure
of the full stature of Christ" (Eph 4:13).
These efforts include self-critical reflection on our relationships
with other churches, openness to appreciate authentically
evangelical expressions of life in them, and to be mutually
enriched. They will also include engaging in a more authentic
dialogue where we can speak meaningfully and honestly to
one another, discussing difficulties as they arise and trying
to build up relationships (cf. Eph 4:15).
Some Basic Principles of Religious Freedom
We acknowledge the right of every person "alone or
in community with others and in public or in private"10
to live in accordance with the principles of religious freedom.11
Religious freedom affirms the right of all persons to pursue
the truth and to witness to that truth according to their
conscience. It includes the freedom to acknowledge Jesus
Christ as Lord and Savior and the freedom of Christians
to witness to their faith in him by word and deed.
Religious freedom involves the right to freely adopt or
change one's religion and to "manifest it in teaching,
practice, worship and observance"12
without any coercion which would impair such freedom.
We reject all violations of religious freedom and all forms
of religious intolerance as well as every attempt to impose
belief and practices on others or to manipulate or coerce
others in the name of religion.
Freedom of religion touches on "one of the fundamental
elements of the conception of life of the person".
The promotion of religious freedom contributes also to the
harmonious relations between religious communities and is
therefore an essential contribution to social harmony and
peace. For these reasons, international instruments and
the constitutional nations recognize the right to religious
proselytism can violate or manipulate the right of the individual
and can exacerbate tense and delegate situations between
the communities and thus destabilize societies.
The responsibility of fostering religious freedom and the
harmonious relations between religious communities is a
primary concern of the churches. Where principles of religious
freedom are not being respected and lived in church relations,
we need, through dialogue in mutual respect, to encourage
deeper consideration and appreciation of these principles
and of their practical applications for the churches.
IV. Nature and Characteristics of Proselytism
In the history of the church, the term "proselytism"
has been used as a positive term and even as an equivalent
concept for missionary activity.14
More recently, especially in the context of the modern ecumenical
movement it has taken on a negative connotation when applied
to activities of Christians to win adherents from other
Christian communities. These activities may be more obvious
or more subtle. They may be for unworthy motives or by unjust
means that violate the conscience of the human person; or
even if proceeding with good intentions, their approach
ignores the Christian reality of other churches or their
particular approaches to pastoral practice.
Proselytism as described in this document stands in opposition
to all ecumenical effort. it includes certain activities
which often aim at having people change their church affiliation
and which we believe must be avoided, such as the following;15
- making unjust or uncharitable references to other churches'
beliefs and practices and even ridiculing them;
- comparing two Christian communities by emphasizing the
achievements and ideals of one, and the weaknesses and practical
problems of the other;
- employing any kind of physical violence, moral compulsion
and psychological pressure e.g. the use of certain advertising
techniques in mass media that might bring undue pressure
- using political, social and economic power as a means
of winning new members for one's own church;
- extending explicit or implicit offers of education, health
care or material inducements or using financial resources
with the intent of making converts;17
- manipulative attitudes and practices that exploit people's
needs, weaknesses or lack of education especially in situations
of distress, and fail to respect their freedom and human
While our focus in this document is on relationships
between Christians, it is important to seek the mutual
application of these principles also in interfaith relations.
Both Christians and communities of other faiths complain
about unworthy and unacceptable methods of seeking converts
from their respective communities. The increased cooperation
and dialogue among people of different faiths could
result in witness offered to one another that would
respect human freedom and dignity and be free of the
negative activities described above.
Sources of Tension in Church Relationships
We need to look at some of the sources of tension in
church relationships which could lead to proselytism,
in order to ground some of this concern. One is the
holding of distorted views of another church's teaching
or doctrine and even attacking or caricaturing them
e.g. denouncing prayer for the dead as a denial of the
need for personal acceptance of Christ as Lord and Savior;
discrediting the veneration of icons as signs of crude
idolatry; interpreting the use of art in church buildings
as a transgression of the first commandment.
Different understandings of missiology and different
concepts of evangelization also underly some inter-church
tensions e.g. seeing God's gift of salvation as coming
exclusively through one's own church; seeing the task
of mission as exclusively concerned with social matters
or exclusively with spiritual matters, rather than in
a holistic way. They can lead to competition or even
conflict in missionary practice among the churches rather
than a common approach to mission.
Different theological and pastoral understandings of
the meaning of certain concepts can also contribute
to tension in relationships. For example some aim at
the re-evangelization of baptized but non-practicing
members of other churches. But there are different interpretations
of who is "unchurched", or a "true"
Christian believer. Efforts to understand the perspectives
of other Christian communities on these matters are
The varieties of understanding of membership existing
among churches can also be an unnecessary source of
tension. There are theological issues involved. The
way of becoming a member and even the way of terminating
membership in particular churches can be understood
very differently. The duties and responsibilities of
members also differ from church to church. This diversity
of understanding influences the way we see changes in
there are occasions when the personal and cultural confusion
of people, their social-political resentments, the tensions
within a church, or their hurtful experiences in their
own church can be played upon to persuade them to be
Sometimes, evangelizers can be tempted to take advantage
of the spiritual and material needs of people or their
lack of instruction in the faith in order to make them
change their church affiliation because they may interpret
this as a lack of pastoral care and attention to these
people on the part of churches to which they belong.
But in fact, pastoral care, even if it could be more
adequate, may be available to the person in his/her
own church. Here again there may be different perceptions
as to what is adequate and what is inadequate in the
field of pastoral care. However the churches must always
look for ways to improve the pastoral care they give
to their people, especially the quality of instruction
in the faith.
Tensions also arise on occasion because of the unjust
interference on the part of the State in church matters
in order to influence people to change church membership.
In other situations where a church identifies with the
government or works in collusion with it to the extent
that it fails to exercise its prophetic role, tensions
can arise within the Christian community from what may
be seen as preferential treatment by the government
for that particular church.
Tensions can result in evangelizing activity when there
is a lack of sufficient regard for people's culture
and religious traditions. There can also be dangers
if we lose sight of the fact that the gospel must take
root in the soil of different cultures, while it cannot
be limited to any culture.
Finally, there can be a lack of respect for the beliefs
and practices of minority groups in contexts dominated
by a majority church, and an inability to see them as
full and equal partners in society that causes tensions
in relationships. In some cases, a dominant Christian
tradition has allowed restrictive laws to be framed
by the State which disfavor Christians of another tradition.
Despite all efforts to combat it, the problem of proselytism
is still with us, causing painful tensions in church
relationships and undermining the credibility of the
Church's witness to God's universal love. Ultimately,
proselytism is a sign of the real scandal which is division.
By placing the issue of proselytism in the context of
Church unity and of common witness we suggest a perspective
which makes it possible to approach the problem within
an adequate theological framework.
responsible ecumenical relationships in many different
contexts are a complex reality requiring study and theological
dialogue, prayer and practical collaboration, we would
like to recommend the following to the churches keeping
in mind that the movement for Christian unity can also
contribute to breaking down barriers between people
in the wider society as well:
- to encourage churches to pray for one another and
for Christian unity in response to the prayer of our
Lord, that his disciples "may all be one... so
that the world may believe" (Jn 17:21);
- to prepare more adequate Christian formation programs
within our churches so that people are better equipped
- to share their own faith, as well as ecumenical programs
that will foster respect for the integrity of other
Christian churches and openness to receive from them;
- to develop a sensitivity to existing ecclesial realities
in a given area so that when providing the required
pastoral care for one's own church members, it can be
done in an atmosphere of communication and appropriate
- to condemn publication of unverified alleged events
or incidents concerning church activities that only
fan feelings of fear and prejudice, and of one-sided
or prejudicial reports on religious developments which
can undercut efforts towards cooperation;20
- to try to understand history from the perspective
of other churches in order to arrive at a shared common
understanding of it and where necessary, at reconciliation,
mutual forgiveness and healing of memories;
- to study together the nature of diakonia in order
that the characteristics of Christian service be made
clear and transparent; that is, that it may be truly
inspired by the love of Christ and that it may not be
a reason for tension, nor a means of proselytism;
- to help people to a greater awareness of the phenomenon
of sects and new religious movements, through collaborative
efforts, and also to consider the question of how to
respond pastorally but firmly to coercive religious
practices by persons and groups that are not in keeping
with the principles of religious liberty;
- to include in any future study of proselytism the
significant participation of Christians, both within
and outside WCC/RCC circles of influence, especially
those accused of these practices and those who have
changed church affiliation through the efforts of another
These efforts will be effective and successful to the
extent that relationships of reciprocal trust are built
between the churches.
Knowing that our common faith in Jesus, Lord and Savior,
unites us and that baptism is an effective sign of unity,
we are called to live our Christian vocation in unity
and to give visible witness to it.
it is not enough to denounce proselytism. We need to
continue to prepare ourselves for genuine common Christian
witness through common prayer, common retreats, Bible
courses, Bible sharing, study and action groups, religious
education jointly or in collaboration, joint or coordinated
pastoral and missionary activity,22
a common service (diakonia) in humanitarian matters
and theological dialogue. The immensely rich Christian
spiritual patrimony of contemplative prayer can be a
resource for all. We acknowledge that our current divisions
limit the extent to which we can engage in common witness.
We recall and make our own the principle cited in the
Third World Conference on Faith and Order at Lund, Sweden,
earnestly request our churches to consider whether they
are doing all they ought to do to manifest the oneness
of the people of God. Should not our churches ask themselves
whether they are showing sufficient eagerness to enter
into conversation with other churches and whether they
should not act together in all matters except those
in which deep differences of conviction compel them
to act separately?... Obedience to God demands also
that the churches seek unity in their mission to the
There is also an urgent need to continue to work collaboratively
in order to transcend the lines that society draws between
those at the center and those on the peripheries, between
those who have an abundance of resources and those marginalized
because of race, economics, gender or for other reasons.
These societal divisions often provide the context for
proselytism and therefore challenge our divided churches
to closer collaboration that will be a common Christian
In all of these reflections we take our inspiration
from the gospel itself:
is my commandment: love one another, as I have loved
you. No one can have greater love than to lay down his
life for his friends... You did not choose me, no, I
chose you; and I commissioned you to go out and to bear
fruit, fruit that will last; so that the Father will
give you anything you ask him in my name. My command
to you is to love one another" (Jn 15,12-13,
Note on this study document
As proselytism is a reality that obliges churches
to seek a solution, and a question that continues to
surface at different meetings, including the WCC Central
Committee and the Assembly in Canberra, the Joint Working
Group, at its meeting in Wennigsen, Germany, in March
1992, decided to work on a new study document on proselytism,
as this would be a broader forum to gather some of the
findings from various meetings, including the bilateral
dialogues, and to make a synthesis of solutions proposed.
At subsequent JWG Executive meetings, decisions were
made to base the new study document on the 1970 document:
"Common Witness and Proselytism" and the 1982
document: "Common Witness". Mr Georges Lemopoulos
and Sr Monica Cooney were asked to prepare an outline
for the work. Consultations were held with various people
both within the WCC and outside. A draft outline, prepared
with the help of Fr Karl Müller, svd, and Prof
Dr Reinhard Frieling, was then submitted to the JWG
Executive meetings, and a first draft was presented
to the JWG plenary meeting in Crete, June 1994.
Dr Günther Gassmann and Monsignor John Radano were
then appointed as drafters. They presented an amended
draft to the JWG Executive in Geneva in October 1994,
after which both WCC Program Unit II and Program Unit
III (CCIA) were consulted (the latter on the question
of religious freedom).
A final draft was discussed at the JWG plenary in Bose,
Italy, May 1995, and finalized at the Executive, Geneva,
This document points out the problem of proselytism,
noting the different realities in a variety of contexts
as it is not a problem of any two churches in a particular
area. It is prepared in the conviction that while we
continue to proselytize and to accuse one another of
proselytism, instead of speaking the truth in love,
we cannot respond to the call to common witness, nor
can we live the command to love one another as God has
first loved us.
[Information Service 91 (1996/I-II) 77-83]
also the more detailed description of proselytism in paras.
many other examples which could be added here cf: a) "The
Evangelical-Roman Catholic Dialogue on Mission 1977-1984:
A Report" Information Service (Pontifical Council for
Promoting Christian Unity, Vatican City) 60 (1986/) 71-97;
b) "Summons to Witness to Christ in Today's World: A
Report on the Baptist-Roman Catholic International Conversations
1984-1988" Information Service 72 (1990/) 5-14; c) "Letter
of Pope John Paul II to Bishops of Europe on Relations Between
Catholics and Orthodox in the New Situation of Central and
Eastern Europe" (May 31, 1991) Information Service 81
(1992/) 101-103; d) "General Principles and Practical
Norms for Coordinating the Evangelizing Activity and Ecumenical
Commitment of the Catholic Church in Russia and in the Other
Countries of the CIS": Pontifical Commission for Russia
(from the Vatican, June 1, 1992); e) "Uniatism: Method
of Union of the Past, and the Present Search for Full Communion,
Report of the Joint International Commission for the Theological
Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox
Church - Balamand, June 17-24, 1993" Information Service
83 (1993/) 96-99; f) "US Orthodox/Roman Catholic Consultation
at the Holy Cross Orthodox School of Theology, Brookline,
Mass., May 26-28, 1992" Origins 22, 5 (1992) 79-80; g)
The Fifth World Conference on Faith and Order, Santiago de
Compostela, Aug. 3-14, 1993, Towards Koinonia in Faith, Life
and Witness, Faith and Order Paper, 161 (Geneva: WCC, 1993).
Witness and Proselytism: A Study Document" Ecumenical
Review 23 (1971), n. 1.
Witness. A Study Document of the Joint Working Group of the
Roman Catholic Church and the World Council of Churches, CWME
Series, 1 (Geneva: CWME, 1982).
also T.F. BEST and G. GASSMANN, eds., On the Way to Fuller
Koinonia, Official Report of the Fifth World Conference on
Faith and Order. Santiago de Compostela, 1993 (Geneva: WCC,
1994). 256-257 (Report of Section IV: "Called to Common
Witness for a Renewed World", Para. 14).
"At Thy Word: Mission and Evangelization in Europe Today,
Message of the Fifth European Ecumenical Encounter, Santiago
de Compostela, November 13-17, 1991" Catholic International
3, 2 (1992) 88-93; "God Unitesin Christ a New Creation,
Report of the 10th Assembly of CEC, Prague, September 1-11,
1992", (Geneva: CEC, 1992) 182-183 (Final Report of the
Policy Reference Committee, Appendix 18).
Sects and Pastoral Challenges Working Document of the
Commission of Faith and Unity", MECC, (1989); "Signs
of Hope in the Middle East, MECC/EMEU Consultation, Cyprus,
1992: History of the Dialogue between the MECC and Western
perspective is expressed e.g. in Vatican II, Lumen Gentium,
para 1, and in the Faith and Order Study Document Church and
World, The Unity of the Church and the Renewal of Human Community,
Faith and Order Paper, 151, (Geneva: WCC Publications, 1990).
the Way to Fuller Koinonia,..., op. cit., 256 (Report of Section
IV-Called to Common Witness for a Renewed World, para 14).
on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination
Based on Religion or Belief 25 November 1981, Art. 1,1.
Vatican II, Declaration on Religious Liberty (Dignitatis Humanae),
Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegratio); "Christian
Witness, Proselytism and Religious Liberty in the setting
of the World Council of Churches" The Ecumenical Review
13 (1960) 79-89; WCC Executive Committee Statement on Religious
Liberty, Geneva, September 1979, Study Paper on Religious
Liberty, CCW/WCC Background Information 1980/1; Religious
Liberty Some major considerations in the current debate,
CCL4,/WCC Background Information 1987/1.
on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination
Based on Religion or Belief ,"Art. 7,7 and 7,2.
Declaration of Human Rights, Art. 18. Cf. also Conference
on Cooperation and Security, in Europe: Helsinki Final Agreement.
historical overview shows that the understanding of proselytism'
has changed considerably. In the Bible it was devoid of negative
connotations. A proselyte' was someone who, by belief
in Yahweh and acceptance of the law, became a member of the
Jewish community. Christianity took over this meaning to describe
a person who converted from paganism. Mission work and proselytism
were considered equivalent concepts until recent times".
"Summons to Witness to Christ in Today's World: A Report
on the Baptist-Roman Catholic International Conversations
(1984-1988)", para 32 Information Service 72 (1990/)
Common Witness and Proselytism.
"Summon to Witness..." op. cit., para. 36.
"Uniatism: Method of Union of the Past, and the Present
Search for Full Communion. Report of the Joint International
Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Roman
Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church" (Balamand, June
17-24, 1993), para 24.
"Evangelical-Roman Catholic Dialogue on Mission"
(Section 7.3: Unworthy Witness).
"Uniatism: Method of Union....," op. cit., para
"US Orthodox/Roman Catholic Consultation....", op.
cit., para 2.
the Way to Fuller Koinonia...", op. cit., 256-257 (Report
of Section IV: Called to Common Witness for a Renewed World,
Witness...", op. cit., para 44.
S. TOMKINS, ed., The Third World Conference on Faith and Order
(Lund, August 15-25, 1952), (London: SCM Press Ltd, 1953) 16.
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theological basis for this common witness and further suggestions
may be found in "Common Witness...", op. cit., passim.
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