CHALLENGE OF PROSELYTISM AND THE CALLING TO COMMON WITNESS
DOCUMENT OF THE JOINT WORKING GROUP
BETWEEN THE WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES AND THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
We would like to present the document The Challenge
of Proselytism and the Calling to Common Witness, which has been
prepared by the Joint Working Group between the World Council
of Churches and the Roman Catholic Church, in response to concerns
expressed by some of our churches in regard to the missionary
outreach of other churches that would seem to bear some of the
characteristics of proselytism.
It is within the concern for full Christian unity and common Christian
witness that the question of proselytism is looked at in this
document. There is the common conviction that central to the work
of Christian unity is an urgent need for all Christians to be
able to give a truly common witness to the whole Christian faith.
In this spirit, the document may help Christian communities to
reflect on their own motivation for mission and also on their
methods of evangelizing. Dialogue in a truly ecumenical spirit
with those considered to be proselytizing is highlighted.
It is our hope, therefore, that this document will be shared at
different levels of church life and reflected on by churches,
so that it can contribute towards breaking down mistrust, suspicion,
misunderstanding or ignorance of the other, where any of these
may exist, as well as encourage persevering effort to seek new
ways and means of closer collaboration in evangelization, according
to the different circumstances of time, place and culture.
All such efforts will mean a deeper commitment to the goal of
full communion among Christ's disciples, in the certitude that
our fellowship is with the Father, through the Son, in the Holy
Spirit. This document is meant as a contribution to that goal.
Eminence Metropolitan Elias of Beirut
Most Rev. Alan C. Clark
Co-moderators of the Joint Working Group
25 September 1995
document is the result of discussions in the Joint Working Group
(JWG) and is presented with the conviction that it is timely,
and with the hope that it may serve as an impulse for further
reflection and action in the churches. The conversations in
the JWG were marked both by the grateful recognition of the
increase of common witness of Christians from different traditions,
and serious concerns about tensions and conflicts created by
proselytism in nearly all parts of the world. It is the new
reality of common witness and a growth in koinonia which forms
the backdrop for a critical consideration of proselytism which
has been described as conscious efforts with the intention to
win members of another church.1
Even though the JWG has addressed the questions of common
witness and proselytism on two previous occasions, recent
dramatic events have led it to study these issues once again.
Over the past few years we have become more aware of the concern
being expressed in new situations and contexts in which people
tend to be vulnerable in one way or another, and where proselytizing
activity is alleged to be taking place. Some situations invite
urgent ecumenical attention, such as:
within the climate of newly found religious freedom,
e.g. in Central and Eastern Europe where there is a threat
felt by some churches that their members are under pressure
from other churches to change their allegiance;
instances in the "developing world", (often
easily identified with nations in the southern hemisphere,
though also found elsewhere), in which proselytizing efforts
take advantage of people's misfortunes e.g. in situations
of poverty in villages, or in the mass migration to the cities
where new arrivals have a sense of being lost in anonymity,
or marginalized, and are frequently outside the pastoral structure
of their own church to induce them to change their church
where people of a particular ethnic group, traditionally
members of one church, are said to be encouraged by unfair
means to become members of other churches;
the activity of some new missionary movements, groups
or individuals, both within our churches and outside them,
especially those originating in the newly industrialized nations
which enter countries often uninvited by any church and begin
missionary activity among the local people in competition
with the local churches;
in various places the arrival of evangelizing groups
making extensive use of the mass media and causing confusion
and division among local churches;
in many parts of the world, the churches are experiencing
proselytizing activities of sects and new religious movements.
The purpose of this document is to encourage all Christians
to pursue their calling to render a common witness to God's
saving and reconciling purpose in today's world and to help
them to avoid all competition in mission that contradicts
their common calling. With this aim the document seeks to
facilitate a pastoral response to the continuing challenge
of proselytism which not only endangers existing ecumenical
relations but is also an additional barrier to our growing
together in reciprocal love and trust as brothers and sisters
Today, we thank God for the achievements of ecumenical theological
dialogues during recent decades and for a new climate of understanding
and friendship in which ecumenical relations are being developed.
We are also grateful for all the recent encouraging signs
of better mutual understanding and joint perspectives in the
area of common witness and proselytism.2
These are recorded in bi-lateral and multi-lateral dialogues
among churches and can be seen in significant initiatives
of common witness at different levels of church life. These
agreements and joint actions provide a basis and encouragement
to intensify our efforts to bear together a credible witness
to the gospel in the contemporary world.
In this study process we wish to affirm what continues to
be valid in the two previous WCC/RCC Joint Working Group documents:
Common Witness and Proselytism3
and Common Witness.4
We also want to take into account relevant material on evangelism
and proselytism from some of the aforementioned dialogues.
In addition, this study process will be linked with another
possible study on proselytism in the World Council of Churches
by Unit II.5
We acknowledge with appreciation similar studies being undertaken
by ecumenical bodies like e.g. the Conference of European
and the Middle East Council of Churches.7
Our desire is to invite reflection and action on the part
of churches of different traditions in a task to which all
are called on our pilgrimage to a fuller expression and experience
of visible Christian unity
II. Mission and Unity: the Context of Common Witness
An essential element of the Church is to participate in the
mission of God in Jesus Christ to the world by proclaiming
through word and action God's revelation and salvation to
all people (1 Jn 1:1-5). Indeed, God's mission towards a "reconciled
humanity and a renewed creation" (cf. Eph 1:9-10) is
the essential content and impulse for the missionary witness
of the Church.
Mission in this sense of being sent with a message that is
addressed to the spiritual and also material needs of people
is thus an inescapable mandate for the Church. This imperative
is affirmed today by many churches and is expressed through
their regular activities as well as special efforts (New Evangelization,
Decades of Evangelism, Mission 2000). Sent to a world in need
of unity and greater interdependence amidst the competition
and fragmentation of the human community, the Church is called
to be sign and instrument of God's reconciling love.8
Ecumenical relationships, however, have from the beginning
of the modern ecumenical movement been shaped by the insight
that the search for the visible unity of Christ's Church must
include the commitment to and the practice of a common missionary
witness. In the prayer of Jesus "that they all may be
one so that the world may believe" (Jn 17:21), we are
reminded that the unity of Christians and the mission of the
Church are intrinsically related. Divisions among Christians
are a counter-witness to Christ and contradict their witness
to reconciliation in Christ.
In responding to the appeal for the unity of Christians in
effective missionary witness, we need to be aware of the reality
of diversity rooted in theological traditions and in various
geographical, historical and cultural contexts. We recognize,
therefore, that the unity we seek is a unity that embraces
a legitimate diversity of spiritual, disciplinary, liturgical
and theological expressions that enrich common witness. It
will include the discovery and appreciation of the many diverse
gifts of Christ which we share already now as Christians in
"real but imperfect communion", gifts given for
the upbuilding of the church (cf. Rm 12:4-8). Even when churches
are not in full communion with each other they are called
to be truthful to each other and show respect for each other.
Such an attitude does not subvert their self-understanding
and their conviction to have received the truth but rather
facilitates the common search for unity and common witness
to God's love for the world.
In the growing ecumenical koinonia there must also be a way
of witnessing to the gospel to each other in faithfulness
to one's own tradition and convictions. Such mutual witness
could enrich and challenge us to renew our thinking and life,
and could do so without being polemical towards those who
do not share the same tradition. "To speak the truth
in love" (Eph 4:15) is a challenge and an experience
long accepted within the ecumenical movement.
The recognition of an already existing, though imperfect,
communion among churches is a significant result of ecumenical
efforts and a new element in twentieth century church history.
This existing communion should be an encouragement for further
efforts to overcome the barriers that still prevent churches
from reaching full communion. It should provide a basis for
the renewal, common witness and service of the churches for
the sake of God's saving and reconciling activity for all
humanity and all creation. It should also provide a basis
for avoiding all rivalry and anatagonistic competition in
mission because "the use of coercive or manipulative
methods in evangelism distort koinonia".9
When Christians by means of efforts towards common witness
struggle to overcome such lack of reciprocal love, of mutual
understanding and of trust they will be open to the call for
repentance and for the renewal of their efforts. This is the
way "to come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge
of the Son of God, to maturity, to the measure of the full
stature of Christ" (Eph 4:13).
These efforts include self-critical reflection on our relationships
with other churches, openness to appreciate authentically
evangelical expressions of life in them, and to be mutually
enriched. They will also include engaging in a more authentic
dialogue where we can speak meaningfully and honestly to one
another, discussing difficulties as they arise and trying
to build up relationships (cf. Eph 4:15).
Some Basic Principles of Religious Freedom
We acknowledge the right of every person "alone or in
community with others and in public or in private"10
to live in accordance with the principles of religious freedom.11
Religious freedom affirms the right of all persons to pursue
the truth and to witness to that truth according to their
conscience. It includes the freedom to acknowledge Jesus Christ
as Lord and Savior and the freedom of Christians to witness
to their faith in him by word and deed.
Religious freedom involves the right to freely adopt or change
one's religion and to "manifest it in teaching, practice,
worship and observance"12
without any coercion which would impair such freedom.
We reject all violations of religious freedom and all forms
of religious intolerance as well as every attempt to impose
belief and practices on others or to manipulate or coerce
others in the name of religion.
Freedom of religion touches on "one of the fundamental
elements of the conception of life of the person". The
promotion of religious freedom contributes also to the harmonious
relations between religious communities and is therefore an
essential contribution to social harmony and peace. For these
reasons, international instruments and the constitutional
nations recognize the right to religious freedom.13
proselytism can violate or manipulate the right of the individual
and can exacerbate tense and delegate situations between the
communities and thus destabilize societies.
The responsibility of fostering religious freedom and the
harmonious relations between religious communities is a primary
concern of the churches. Where principles of religious freedom
are not being respected and lived in church relations, we
need, through dialogue in mutual respect, to encourage deeper
consideration and appreciation of these principles and of
their practical applications for the churches.
IV. Nature and Characteristics of Proselytism
In the history of the church, the term "proselytism"
has been used as a positive term and even as an equivalent
concept for missionary activity.14
More recently, especially in the context of the modern ecumenical
movement it has taken on a negative connotation when applied
to activities of Christians to win adherents from other Christian
communities. These activities may be more obvious or more
subtle. They may be for unworthy motives or by unjust means
that violate the conscience of the human person; or even if
proceeding with good intentions, their approach ignores the
Christian reality of other churches or their particular approaches
to pastoral practice.
Proselytism as described in this document stands in opposition
to all ecumenical effort. it includes certain activities which
often aim at having people change their church affiliation
and which we believe must be avoided, such as the following;15
- making unjust or uncharitable references to other churches'
beliefs and practices and even ridiculing them;
- comparing two Christian communities by emphasizing the achievements
and ideals of one, and the weaknesses and practical problems
of the other;
- employing any kind of physical violence, moral compulsion
and psychological pressure e.g. the use of certain advertising
techniques in mass media that might bring undue pressure on
- using political, social and economic power as a means of
winning new members for one's own church;
- extending explicit or implicit offers of education, health
care or material inducements or using financial resources
with the intent of making converts;17
- manipulative attitudes and practices that exploit people's
needs, weaknesses or lack of education especially in situations
of distress, and fail to respect their freedom and human dignity.18
While our focus in this document is on relationships between
Christians, it is important to seek the mutual application
of these principles also in interfaith relations. Both
Christians and communities of other faiths complain about
unworthy and unacceptable methods of seeking converts
from their respective communities. The increased cooperation
and dialogue among people of different faiths could result
in witness offered to one another that would respect human
freedom and dignity and be free of the negative activities
Sources of Tension in Church Relationships
We need to look at some of the sources of tension in church
relationships which could lead to proselytism, in order
to ground some of this concern. One is the holding of
distorted views of another church's teaching or doctrine
and even attacking or caricaturing them e.g. denouncing
prayer for the dead as a denial of the need for personal
acceptance of Christ as Lord and Savior; discrediting
the veneration of icons as signs of crude idolatry; interpreting
the use of art in church buildings as a transgression
of the first commandment.
Different understandings of missiology and different concepts
of evangelization also underly some inter-church tensions
e.g. seeing God's gift of salvation as coming exclusively
through one's own church; seeing the task of mission as
exclusively concerned with social matters or exclusively
with spiritual matters, rather than in a holistic way.
They can lead to competition or even conflict in missionary
practice among the churches rather than a common approach
Different theological and pastoral understandings of the
meaning of certain concepts can also contribute to tension
in relationships. For example some aim at the re-evangelization
of baptized but non-practicing members of other churches.
But there are different interpretations of who is "unchurched",
or a "true" Christian believer. Efforts to understand
the perspectives of other Christian communities on these
matters are therefore necessary.
The varieties of understanding of membership existing
among churches can also be an unnecessary source of tension.
There are theological issues involved. The way of becoming
a member and even the way of terminating membership in
particular churches can be understood very differently.
The duties and responsibilities of members also differ
from church to church. This diversity of understanding
influences the way we see changes in church affiliation.
there are occasions when the personal and cultural confusion
of people, their social-political resentments, the tensions
within a church, or their hurtful experiences in their
own church can be played upon to persuade them to be converted.
Sometimes, evangelizers can be tempted to take advantage
of the spiritual and material needs of people or their
lack of instruction in the faith in order to make them
change their church affiliation because they may interpret
this as a lack of pastoral care and attention to these
people on the part of churches to which they belong. But
in fact, pastoral care, even if it could be more adequate,
may be available to the person in his/her own church.
Here again there may be different perceptions as to what
is adequate and what is inadequate in the field of pastoral
care. However the churches must always look for ways to
improve the pastoral care they give to their people, especially
the quality of instruction in the faith.
Tensions also arise on occasion because of the unjust
interference on the part of the State in church matters
in order to influence people to change church membership.
In other situations where a church identifies with the
government or works in collusion with it to the extent
that it fails to exercise its prophetic role, tensions
can arise within the Christian community from what may
be seen as preferential treatment by the government for
that particular church.
Tensions can result in evangelizing activity when there
is a lack of sufficient regard for people's culture and
religious traditions. There can also be dangers if we
lose sight of the fact that the gospel must take root
in the soil of different cultures, while it cannot be
limited to any culture.
Finally, there can be a lack of respect for the beliefs
and practices of minority groups in contexts dominated
by a majority church, and an inability to see them as
full and equal partners in society that causes tensions
in relationships. In some cases, a dominant Christian
tradition has allowed restrictive laws to be framed by
the State which disfavor Christians of another tradition.
Despite all efforts to combat it, the problem of proselytism
is still with us, causing painful tensions in church relationships
and undermining the credibility of the Church's witness
to God's universal love. Ultimately, proselytism is a
sign of the real scandal which is division. By placing
the issue of proselytism in the context of Church unity
and of common witness we suggest a perspective which makes
it possible to approach the problem within an adequate
responsible ecumenical relationships in many different
contexts are a complex reality requiring study and theological
dialogue, prayer and practical collaboration, we would
like to recommend the following to the churches keeping
in mind that the movement for Christian unity can also
contribute to breaking down barriers between people in
the wider society as well:
- to encourage churches to pray for one another and for
Christian unity in response to the prayer of our Lord,
that his disciples "may all be one... so that the
world may believe" (Jn 17:21);
- to prepare more adequate Christian formation programs
within our churches so that people are better equipped
- to share their own faith, as well as ecumenical programs
that will foster respect for the integrity of other Christian
churches and openness to receive from them;
- to develop a sensitivity to existing ecclesial realities
in a given area so that when providing the required pastoral
care for one's own church members, it can be done in an
atmosphere of communication and appropriate consultation;19
- to condemn publication of unverified alleged events
or incidents concerning church activities that only fan
feelings of fear and prejudice, and of one-sided or prejudicial
reports on religious developments which can undercut efforts
- to try to understand history from the perspective of
other churches in order to arrive at a shared common understanding
of it and where necessary, at reconciliation, mutual forgiveness
and healing of memories;
- to study together the nature of diakonia in order that
the characteristics of Christian service be made clear
and transparent; that is, that it may be truly inspired
by the love of Christ and that it may not be a reason
for tension, nor a means of proselytism;
- to help people to a greater awareness of the phenomenon
of sects and new religious movements, through collaborative
efforts, and also to consider the question of how to respond
pastorally but firmly to coercive religious practices
by persons and groups that are not in keeping with the
principles of religious liberty;
- to include in any future study of proselytism the significant
participation of Christians, both within and outside WCC/RCC
circles of influence, especially those accused of these
practices and those who have changed church affiliation
through the efforts of another church.21
These efforts will be effective and successful to the
extent that relationships of reciprocal trust are built
between the churches.
Knowing that our common faith in Jesus, Lord and Savior,
unites us and that baptism is an effective sign of unity,
we are called to live our Christian vocation in unity
and to give visible witness to it.
it is not enough to denounce proselytism. We need to continue
to prepare ourselves for genuine common Christian witness
through common prayer, common retreats, Bible courses,
Bible sharing, study and action groups, religious education
jointly or in collaboration, joint or coordinated pastoral
and missionary activity,22
a common service (diakonia) in humanitarian matters and
theological dialogue. The immensely rich Christian spiritual
patrimony of contemplative prayer can be a resource for
all. We acknowledge that our current divisions limit the
extent to which we can engage in common witness. We recall
and make our own the principle cited in the Third World
Conference on Faith and Order at Lund, Sweden, 1952:
earnestly request our churches to consider whether they
are doing all they ought to do to manifest the oneness
of the people of God. Should not our churches ask themselves
whether they are showing sufficient eagerness to enter
into conversation with other churches and whether they
should not act together in all matters except those in
which deep differences of conviction compel them to act
separately?... Obedience to God demands also that the
churches seek unity in their mission to the world".23
There is also an urgent need to continue to work collaboratively
in order to transcend the lines that society draws between
those at the center and those on the peripheries, between
those who have an abundance of resources and those marginalized
because of race, economics, gender or for other reasons.
These societal divisions often provide the context for
proselytism and therefore challenge our divided churches
to closer collaboration that will be a common Christian
In all of these reflections we take our inspiration from
the gospel itself:
is my commandment: love one another, as I have loved you.
No one can have greater love than to lay down his life
for his friends... You did not choose me, no, I chose
you; and I commissioned you to go out and to bear fruit,
fruit that will last; so that the Father will give you
anything you ask him in my name. My command to you is
to love one another" (Jn 15,12-13, 16-17).
Note on this study document
As proselytism is a reality that obliges churches to
seek a solution, and a question that continues to surface
at different meetings, including the WCC Central Committee
and the Assembly in Canberra, the Joint Working Group,
at its meeting in Wennigsen, Germany, in March 1992, decided
to work on a new study document on proselytism, as this
would be a broader forum to gather some of the findings
from various meetings, including the bilateral dialogues,
and to make a synthesis of solutions proposed.
At subsequent JWG Executive meetings, decisions were made
to base the new study document on the 1970 document: "Common
Witness and Proselytism" and the 1982 document: "Common
Witness". Mr Georges Lemopoulos and Sr Monica Cooney
were asked to prepare an outline for the work. Consultations
were held with various people both within the WCC and
outside. A draft outline, prepared with the help of Fr
Karl Müller, svd, and Prof Dr Reinhard Frieling,
was then submitted to the JWG Executive meetings, and
a first draft was presented to the JWG plenary meeting
in Crete, June 1994.
Dr Günther Gassmann and Monsignor John Radano were
then appointed as drafters. They presented an amended
draft to the JWG Executive in Geneva in October 1994,
after which both WCC Program Unit II and Program Unit
III (CCIA) were consulted (the latter on the question
of religious freedom).
A final draft was discussed at the JWG plenary in Bose,
Italy, May 1995, and finalized at the Executive, Geneva,
This document points out the problem of proselytism, noting
the different realities in a variety of contexts as it
is not a problem of any two churches in a particular area.
It is prepared in the conviction that while we continue
to proselytize and to accuse one another of proselytism,
instead of speaking the truth in love, we cannot respond
to the call to common witness, nor can we live the command
to love one another as God has first loved us.
[Information Service 91 (1996/I-II) 77-83]
also the more detailed description of proselytism in paras.
many other examples which could be added here cf: a) "The
Evangelical-Roman Catholic Dialogue on Mission 1977-1984: A
Report" Information Service (Pontifical Council for Promoting
Christian Unity, Vatican City) 60 (1986/) 71-97; b) "Summons
to Witness to Christ in Today's World: A Report on the Baptist-Roman
Catholic International Conversations 1984-1988" Information
Service 72 (1990/) 5-14; c) "Letter of Pope John Paul II
to Bishops of Europe on Relations Between Catholics and Orthodox
in the New Situation of Central and Eastern Europe" (May
31, 1991) Information Service 81 (1992/) 101-103; d) "General
Principles and Practical Norms for Coordinating the Evangelizing
Activity and Ecumenical Commitment of the Catholic Church in
Russia and in the Other Countries of the CIS": Pontifical
Commission for Russia (from the Vatican, June 1, 1992); e) "Uniatism:
Method of Union of the Past, and the Present Search for Full
Communion, Report of the Joint International Commission for
the Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and
the Orthodox Church - Balamand, June 17-24, 1993" Information
Service 83 (1993/) 96-99; f) "US Orthodox/Roman Catholic
Consultation at the Holy Cross Orthodox School of Theology,
Brookline, Mass., May 26-28, 1992" Origins 22, 5 (1992)
79-80; g) The Fifth World Conference on Faith and Order, Santiago
de Compostela, Aug. 3-14, 1993, Towards Koinonia in Faith, Life
and Witness, Faith and Order Paper, 161 (Geneva: WCC, 1993).
Witness and Proselytism: A Study Document" Ecumenical Review
23 (1971), n. 1.
Witness. A Study Document of the Joint Working Group of the
Roman Catholic Church and the World Council of Churches, CWME
Series, 1 (Geneva: CWME, 1982).
also T.F. BEST and G. GASSMANN, eds., On the Way to Fuller Koinonia,
Official Report of the Fifth World Conference on Faith and Order.
Santiago de Compostela, 1993 (Geneva: WCC, 1994). 256-257 (Report
of Section IV: "Called to Common Witness for a Renewed
World", Para. 14).
"At Thy Word: Mission and Evangelization in Europe Today,
Message of the Fifth European Ecumenical Encounter, Santiago
de Compostela, November 13-17, 1991" Catholic International
3, 2 (1992) 88-93; "God Unitesin Christ a New Creation,
Report of the 10th Assembly of CEC, Prague, September 1-11,
1992", (Geneva: CEC, 1992) 182-183 (Final Report of the
Policy Reference Committee, Appendix 18).
Sects and Pastoral Challenges Working Document of the
Commission of Faith and Unity", MECC, (1989); "Signs
of Hope in the Middle East, MECC/EMEU Consultation, Cyprus,
1992: History of the Dialogue between the MECC and Western Evangelicals".
perspective is expressed e.g. in Vatican II, Lumen Gentium,
para 1, and in the Faith and Order Study Document Church and
World, The Unity of the Church and the Renewal of Human Community,
Faith and Order Paper, 151, (Geneva: WCC Publications, 1990).
the Way to Fuller Koinonia,..., op. cit., 256 (Report of Section
IV-Called to Common Witness for a Renewed World, para 14).
on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination
Based on Religion or Belief 25 November 1981, Art. 1,1.
Vatican II, Declaration on Religious Liberty (Dignitatis Humanae),
Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegratio); "Christian
Witness, Proselytism and Religious Liberty in the setting of
the World Council of Churches" The Ecumenical Review 13
(1960) 79-89; WCC Executive Committee Statement on Religious
Liberty, Geneva, September 1979, Study Paper on Religious Liberty,
CCW/WCC Background Information 1980/1; Religious Liberty
Some major considerations in the current debate, CCL4,/WCC Background
on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination
Based on Religion or Belief ,"Art. 7,7 and 7,2.
Declaration of Human Rights, Art. 18. Cf. also Conference on
Cooperation and Security, in Europe: Helsinki Final Agreement.
historical overview shows that the understanding of proselytism'
has changed considerably. In the Bible it was devoid of negative
connotations. A proselyte' was someone who, by belief
in Yahweh and acceptance of the law, became a member of the
Jewish community. Christianity took over this meaning to describe
a person who converted from paganism. Mission work and proselytism
were considered equivalent concepts until recent times".
"Summons to Witness to Christ in Today's World: A Report
on the Baptist-Roman Catholic International Conversations (1984-1988)",
para 32 Information Service 72 (1990/) 10.
Common Witness and Proselytism.
"Summon to Witness..." op. cit., para. 36.
"Uniatism: Method of Union of the Past, and the Present
Search for Full Communion. Report of the Joint International
Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic
Church and the Orthodox Church" (Balamand, June 17-24,
1993), para 24.
"Evangelical-Roman Catholic Dialogue on Mission" (Section
7.3: Unworthy Witness).
"Uniatism: Method of Union....," op. cit., para 22.
"US Orthodox/Roman Catholic Consultation....", op.
cit., para 2.
the Way to Fuller Koinonia...", op. cit., 256-257 (Report
of Section IV: Called to Common Witness for a Renewed World,
Witness...", op. cit., para 44.
S. TOMKINS, ed., The Third World Conference on Faith and Order
(Lund, August 15-25, 1952), (London: SCM Press Ltd, 1953) 16.
Back to text
theological basis for this common witness and further suggestions
may be found in "Common Witness...", op. cit., passim.